A turnkey packaging system is, quite simply, a packaging system that includes all of the necessary equipment to prepare a product for the shelf. However, the question posed by this article is somewhat misleading, as a fully operational packaging line will vary depending on the product being packaged, the space available, the desires of the packager and many other factors. As an example, we will take a guided tour down a fictional packaging line and discuss the equipment and some of the alternatives available to the machines discussed.Power Conveyor SystemsWe will begin setting up our packaging line by leveling a power conveyor system on the floor. For automatic packaging lines, power conveyor systems are a must to move containers from one machine to another. These systems are the circulatory system for packaging any product. Of course, not every packager will use a completely automatic system, and some may be entirely labor based lines. In these cases, the power conveyors may be replaced by non-powered, roller or skate conveyors. In other cases, stand-alone machinery such as a filler or capper may use a slide track or positioning nest in place of the conveyor. The operator of these semi-automatic machines will slide the bottles in place along the track or into the positioning nest for the packaging process to begin.Loading TurntableAt the beginning of our conveyor system, we will use a loading turntable to get bottles onto the packaging line. This will require the operator of our packaging line to load empty bottles onto the turntable, which will then deliver the bottles to the conveyor system for transfer to the various machines discussed below. The loading turntable is one of many ways to begin the packaging process, with other alternatives including unscrambling machines, which would allow an operator to simply dump bulk bottles into a hopper while the machine sets them on the conveyor and even laning conveyors that use a loading table and prepare bottles in lines for delivery to the main conveyor system. Loading turntables may be used for bottles that arrive in smaller cases, such as alcohol bottles or mason jars, while unscramblers are good for higher speed bottles that may arrive in bulk boxes. Laning conveyors work well for non-round bottles that may present difficulties for other loading options.Bottle RinserThe first machine that our bottles will encounter on our fictitious packaging line will be an inverting rinsing machine. Container cleaning equipment, including bottle rinsers, are used to remove dust and debris from bottles that may accumulate during the manufacture of the bottle, the transportation of the bottle of even from simple storage as the container awaits its turn on the line. Some packagers may choose to use a bottle vacuum rather than the inverting machine, which blasts the inside of the container with air, seals over the opening and vacuums out the dust and debris. Other packagers may choose to use a bottle washer to clean the outside of the container as well, depending on the container and the need. Not every packaging line will use container cleaning equipment, though those packaging foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and other edible or ingestible products will often require such machinery. In addition to the automatic models, container cleaning equipment can also be manufactured as labor-driven equipment for those with lower production demands.Liquid FillerFilling machines add consistency and reliability to the amount of product that goes in to each bottle. While some low production packagers may hand fill product, or others may do so out of tradition, filling machines add efficiency to the process when hand filling is simply no longer feasible. For our line, we will use an automatic overflow filler, which fills each and every bottle to the same level, even if the internal volume of the bottles varies slightly. Other filling principles may be used for filling by volume or net weight, as well as different machines for lower and higher viscosity products. Like most of the equipment described in this article, tabletop and semi-automatic machines exist as alternatives to the fully automatic filler.Nitrogen Purge SystemThe next machine on our packaging line will be a nitrogen purge system located just before the capping machine. Like container cleaning equipment, not every system will take advantage of the purge. However, for products like foods and beverages, the nitrogen purge system can extend shelf life while also preserving taste, color and texture. The system does this by replacing much of the oxygen in the bottle, or in the headspace of the bottle, with nitrogen, a gas that has a less detrimental effect on many perishable products.Capping MachineTo continue on the journey down our automatic line, the containers will be presented to an automatic capping machine. In our case, we will use a spindle capping machine to apply simple screw-on type caps. The spindle capper includes a cap delivery system that allows it to cap reliably and continuously, leaving the operator of the packaging line to simply replenish bulk caps from time to time. Of course, different caps may require a different type of capping machine, from snap on lids to ROPP caps to corks, the capping machine will match the type of closure used for the container. Some packagers may also use additional or alternative sealing equipment, such as induction seals, neck bands, shrink sleeves and more.Labeling equipment The labeling machine allows packagers the ability to show off their product and connect with the consumer. From photos and logos to information such as ingredients, instructions and expiration dates, this is the machine that allows the product to communicate with the customer. For our system, we will use a wrap labeler that, not surprisingly, wraps a single label around our bottle as it moves down the power conveyor system. Other formats can be used for labels, such as front and back, just front, panel and even top and bottom labeling. Most labelers will also include coding equipment that allows information such as lot number and expiration date to be easily changed. Of course, not every packager will use a labeling machine, as some bottles or other containers may be pre-printed, etched or otherwise marked.Bundling MachinesAt this point on our packaging line, we will use a shrink wrap bundler to create four and six packs of our product, shrink wrapped for convenience. As the containers exit the capping machine, they will slide into place on the bundler to receive the wrap, exiting the machine in groups of four or six, depending on how the machine is set up. There are many other packing options available, including case erectors, case packagers, cartoners and more. Some companies may simply hand pack the finished products as they prepare them for shipping.Accumulating ConveyorLastly, on our packaging line, we will use an accumulating conveyor to gather product for the packaging process. This may be an extension of the power conveyor system, or it may consist of simple roller conveyors where bundles of product can wait to be packaged. Just as we used labor to load product at the beginning of our line, we will use labor to unload product and prepare it to ship at the end of our line. Other systems may use an accumulating turntable, or may even automate the packing process by adding a palletizer and pallet wrapper to the packaging line.So to finally answer the question presented by this article, a turnkey packaging system is made up of whatever equipment the specific packager wants and needs to prepare product for the consumer. It may consist of the machinery described above in our own made up system: power conveyors, loading turntable, rinsing machine, filler, purge system, capper, labeler, bundler and accumulating conveyor. However, a turnkey packaging system may also consist of a simple tabletop liquid filler and chuck capping machine, nothing more. And of course there are many alternatives between the bare necessities and the completely automated system. Finding the machinery that works for your product, container, space and production will lead you to the perfect turnkey solution for your own packaging project.
While our society aimed for advancement, the role of education has also strengthened. It becomes the advocate of industrialization hence, the reason for effective and efficient work forces.Like any other prerogative a person can practice, education remains as one of the most celebrated products of liberalism. As how important education can nurture us, it can also squeeze us out of our comfort zone that is, using education unconstructively to conquer the credulity. Furthermore, education is always viewed as a positive chain for one’s success and sophistication.In the past through imperative reference and education, many are awakened and liberated themselves from the old tradition that harmed a lot of innocent people. Through the learning we gained, we are able to weigh things and draw out the reasons for its significance and its possible damages. Today, where education has produced a lot of incredible and liberated minds, spring a lot of changes in the society more on for the progression and industrialization.The question of what constitutes the product of real education can be viewed through the following:Interest about others. A real educated man sees and appreciates things and entities apart from himself. No one ever survived from being alone. It is a two-way channel. You interact with them to give learning while you listen to them to earn knowledge.Moral beliefs and virtue. A man may be incredibly learned with science and things around him. It taught us how things evolve, what location we are in the universe and how short life was for human beings but it could never teach us how to live our life the way we are able to savor all the things that we discovered. The thing is that, an educated man has a more sensitive and deeper knowledge of things that do not exist through our bare eyes but beyond what the eyes can see.Lament over the invasion of technology. As how useful and efficient technology has brought us, the other side of it has drowned us to the world of superficiality. An educated man rejoices over the success of an invention that eventually helped human to be more productive and to make work easier but laments over the technology turning the most hallowed and sacred event in the past into a mere piece of writing. It blinds human from the awareness of the real pain and effort of culture.Society only sees progression. The real educated man does not only sees the advancement produced in the society but sensible with the inequitable condition of the world beyond industrialization thus pursuing the answer on how to make use of earth’s inadequate resources.Cruelty of knowledge. Truly, there are so many things in the world that are left unanswered that even the minds of Einstein and modern intellectuals combined failed to address such things. For an educated man, there are a lot of things to question, a lot of things to unravel but like any other thing, there are limits to the knowledge that we gain and we take like food just enough to nourish our body. What this thing means is that, a real educated man knows what to question and what to take enough to answer and feed his hungry mind. The danger is that knowledge could destroy us. It could tears us apart through our very own invention and creation.Talking about proper and essential education nowadays means passing a lot of tests to get into a quality education. From passing the tricky and challenging PSAT math up to securing a slot in a law school through thorough plans and LSAT prep, one may nonetheless gain the most celebrated knowledge a person may relish.Let us not be easily foxed by one’s incredible education for all we know, real education does not push us to stray but leads us to the right direction.
Many good quality, single tenant, net leased properties qualify for both credit tenant lease (CTL) financing and conventional commercial mortgage lending. Net lease property investors should consider the pros and cons of each before deciding which type of loan to commit to.CTL lending is generally best for the long term income investor who wants permanent, high leverage, fixed rate, fully amortized financing and desires speed and certainty of execution. Bank lending has a lower initial (but not overall) cost and can offer a larger variety of terms and conditions. Banks are best for investors who need options, don’t need maximum leverage (have large down-payment available), and who are not sure if they will hold a property for the long run.The DifferenceCTL lending combines aspects of commercial mortgage lending with specialized investment banking in-order-to close deals. A CTL banker issues and sells private placement corporate bonds that are secured by the lease on the real estate. The proceeds of the bond sales are used to fund a commercial mortgage loan for the borrower. The loan is administered by a third party Trustee throughout the life of the deal.Traditional commercial mortgages are standard loans secured by mortgage liens against the real estate, the income the property produces and the credit of the borrower. Banking institutions originate a loan and fund the deal either by selling the loan to an investor (private or Government) or by lending its own funds and holding the loan in its portfolio.LeverageThe ongoing credit crunch has forced banks to tighten up their lending criteria. It is highly unlikely that a commercial bank will offer any more than 75% loan-to-value (LTV) on any deal today. Banks have no incentive to take unnecessary risk; they can borrow money from the Fed (Federal Reserve Bank) at 0% percent and buy 10 year Treasury Bonds at 2% earning 2 points risk free. They will pass on high leverage loans and only lend where they have large amounts of protective equity.CTL lenders will lend up to 100% LTV (lease fee valuation) on a non-recourse basis. They are in the business of loaning the full, current cash value of a lease (against the guaranteed future income). CTL bankers, without question, make the highest loan offers in the commercial real estate finance industry.Speed and Certainty of ExecutionCTL loans can close in about 1/3rd of the time it takes to close a conventional commercial mortgage. CTL deals have been known to be completed, from-start-to-finish, in as-little-as 45 days (unheard of in the world of commercial banking) but generally take 60.Bank loans take at least 60 days, sometimes 180 or more. Also, because CTL deals either qualify or doesn’t, a banker can give a borrower a solid yes or no very quickly. There are a thousand ways a bank loan can fall through but, once a CTL banker commits to a deal and a borrower signs off, there is a near 100% certainty of execution.RecourseCTL loans are all non-recourse loans secured by the income that the lease produces.Bank loans are usually, though not always, standard, credit driven, full recourse loans with liens against the borrower as well as the real estate.CostA CTL loan will have higher initial costs because of the investment banking aspect to the deal and the fact that a third party Trustee must be involved. However, over the life cycle of a property, CTL tends to be less expensive because you never have to refinance. At the end of a CTL loan the borrower owns the property free and clear.Bank loans must be recapitalized or paid off at the end of each term, usually 3, 5, 7 or 10 years. Having to refinance so often results in higher overall cost of capital.FlexibilityCTL lending is somewhat less flexible than standard bank lending. The bonds sold by CTL bankers are regulated by the securities industries and the insurance industries. CTL lenders must adhere to very strict criteria and are not allowed to deviate from the standards. A deal qualifies for CTL or it does not; there is no leeway.Banks generally have many lending platforms available to them; they are able to tailor a loan to a particular situation or a particular property.TermsBanks can offer self amortizing loans but generally issue mortgages with 3,5,7 or 10 year maturities amortized over 10-25 years with balloon payments due at the end of each term. Banks can also offer either fixed or adjustable rates.CTL loans are all fully amortized, fixed rate, long term loans with terms coterminous with the lease.In SummaryBanks offer a larger variety of loan products and can loan against more types of properties and tenants. Bank lending also tends to be less expensive in the short-run.On the downside, banks are not inclined to offer high LTV loans and will generally require the borrower to guarantee a loan. Further, bank loans are notorious for falling through and failing to close for any number or reasons (or no reason at-all).CTL loans are rigid in their qualification standards but close with near 100% certainty. They close faster and are less expensive over the life of a deal. CTL bankers place no restrictions on LTV or LTC (loan-to-cost) and are non-recourse loans. Also, it must be noted that CTL loans are administered by a third party Trustee throughout the entire life of a loan. The trustee will collect the rent, pay the mortgage and distribute the income to the borrower every month.CTL loans are best for buy and hold investors who want to lock in today’s low rate for the long term. They are also appropriate for investors who need high leverage financing or who are looking to close as-soon-as-possible.Bank loans are best for investors with deals that need some flexibility in the underwriting process. Bank loans will cost less up-front and more deals will qualify. Banks offer more loan choices to qualified borrowers.Single tenant, net lease real estate investors who understand their options will be well equipped to make the best financing decisions for themselves and their businesses.